Mar 12, 2012

Study: Anatomy: The hand

I think this part of the body is the one, most people struggle with. I dont like it either.
The good message, you can always check you own hands as reference.
The bones of the hand are tricky, but they follow the same rules as all bones. A bone cannot change it's form or go through another one. The arm is the static part in this study and we look at it from above. There's a mass of small bones in the wrist, but neither do we see them, nor do we need to.

The muscles of the hand are very small but the most prominent are two fleshy muscles of the palm.
The thumb muscle is actually attached to the middle finger, as well as the wrist.
The movement of the hand seems very complicated, but it follows strict mechanical rules. The illustration in the lower right shows that a hand turned to the max right/left side forms a straight line on the opposing side.
The fingers almost exclusively pull to to form a fist. They can be tilted sidewarts and pulled upwarts, but not much.
The thumb is a little different, since it can rotate. Imagine the thumb like a hinge. Looking at it from the front, it can move around in a 90° area.

Proportions and constructions: (upper right corner)
- Start with two same size boxes (slightly longer than square form) and cut off a little at the corners like shown or similar.

- The knuckles do not form a straight line, you can use a curve or the shown example.
- There's skin between the fingers which optically shortens the fingers. This is very important !

The middle finger is the landmark we need.
- The knuckle marks 1/2 of the hand.
- The 2nd knuckle is at 1/2 of the finger.
- The 3rd knuckle is at 1/2 of the rest.
- The index finger and the ring finger end at aproximately the same length.
- The pinky (knuckle to fingertip) is close in size to the middlefinger (skin between fingers to fingertip).
- The origin of the thumb lies lower than the knuckles, from above, as well as from the side.
- The straight thumb reaches the 2nd knuckle of the index finger.

other notes:
- Pay attention to the folding of skin and deforming muscles.
- A fist looks different when you hold something like a sword.
- The first line of knuckles do not move, except the one of the ring finger and the pinky, but that's not much.
- The box used for the hand gets thicker to the wrist.

Mar 7, 2012

Study: Anatomy: The leg 4

Finally, the foot !
Let me tell you one thing beforehand:

>> Nobody ever looks on the feet.

Just in case you still want to draw feet, let's go on:
The entire body rests on the two ends of your legs, more precisely, the ankle. From there on downwards, the weight is divided to the heel and the rest of the foot.
The ankle is the joint on which the food rotates and although it's quite flexible, it doesnt really move that much. Try it out yourself, how far in each direction can you actually move your foot ?

The upper left diagrams show bones and tendons etc.
The first one is too short though, the second one is better.
Remember that the foot is an arch, horizontally and vertically, check the figures in the middle.
According to Bridgman, the toes are not all the same when drawn roughly. The pinky (1) and the big toe (3) step downwards in lesser steps than the others.

Mar 6, 2012

Study: Anatomy: The leg 3

I'm not quite sure how this part of the leg is called in english.
I'll just go with "leg", although that feels quite unprecise.

The views are the same as in "study: the leg 2"

1 - outer view
2 - front
3 - inner view
4 - back

Once again I used "the human machine" by Bridgman and luckily this part of the body is really simple, so the doodles weren't that hard to decipher, this time.

- the ankles on the leg are different in height:
high on the inside, low on the outside.
- it's the other way around with the calf, which is basically consists of two muscles.

Mar 4, 2012

Study: Anatomy: The leg 2

While the back was a surprisingly difficult area to deal with, I knew that the knee would be hard. I never really knew why a knee looks the way it does, which made me quite uncomfortable drawing them.
Bridgeman's drawings are (once again) too sketchy and flat to get you far. Google wasnt that much of a help this time.
I really had to search to find drawings or photos that helped me.

The first line up there are rough sketches on how the knee works. The actually possible movments are really restricted.

1 - outer view of the knee
2 - front
3 - inner view
4 - back

I'm still unsure about the entire knee area, but my feeling got a little better. The anatomy in these drawings should be aproximately correct, but dont look onto proportions yet.
I didnt pay attention to it.

- with a straight leg you can imagine the knee as a box or square inside the leg
- the knee form you see, are the ends of the thigh- and the leg bone.
- the kneecap works as a landmark for the area, since many muscles of the thigh and the leg are attached to it.

Mar 2, 2012

Study: Anatomy: The leg

I think we have enough torso studies now.
It's time for some legs.

The thigh is build very similar to the arm.
On the front side is a triceps (tri = three), consisting of a bundle of three muscles, to straighten the leg.
The triceps on the back of your arm does exactly the same.

Of course the counterpart is the biceps (bi = two).
Logically it is placed on the opposite side of the leg / arm to pull on the bones so the joint forms an angle.
It's really simple.

About the illustration:
1: back view of the thigh
2: outer side view
3: front view
4: inner side view

The part that takes practise (as always) is to understand the forms in a threedimensional way.

Mar 1, 2012

Study: Anatomy: The trunk / torso 5

The hip bones are difficult to grasp.
They have a really complex form and the drawings out there vary every time. I found a couch or something like that, which quite resembles the form we need.
In some darwings tutorials I've read to first draw the hip as a tilted box,...well, it kind of works.

On the side of the hips we have just a few muscles.
Gluteus Medius (between the upper edge of the hip and the leg bone)
a smaller muscle on the right side of the medius, which follows the same direction and
Gluteus Maximus (your sitting flesh, from the scrotum to the leg bone).

- The hip bone is like a cut in the body. There's no muscle stretching over it. they just start from it to the upper torso or to the legs.
- The lower end of the Gluteus Maximus is not on the same heigt as the lower end of the hip bone. The Maximus is lower.